Wednesday, March 09, 2016

Is It Teen Angst or Is It Depression?

Depression is the most common mental illness among adolescents. Research tells us that 11% of teenagers have a diagnosable depressive disorder, but that only 1 in 5 teenagers get the help they need. So, how do parents know if their child is just going through teenage angst or dealing with a serious mental illness? 

While moodiness, irritability and isolation are often hallmarks of teenage growing pains, it can be hard to realize where the line begins for mood disorders. The rule of thumb when dealing with depression is to examine three areas in a teen’s life to gauge what’s truly going on.  

Symptoms of Depression in Teenagers
Some of the following can be considered behaviors of a teen moving through the angst of adolescence, other symptoms are indicative of a more serious issue going on.  The first thing is for parents to become familiar with these symptoms.
Anger, hostility, outbursts
Changes in eating and sleeping – either too much or too little
Difficulty concentrating
Fatigue or lack of energy
Feelings of guilt or underserving of love
Giving things away
Grooming issues
Lack of enthusiasm and motivation
Loss of interest in school work and/or activities
Low self-esteem
Minimizing or masking symptoms
Missing school
Negative thinking
Not enjoying things that used to bring happiness
Physical aches and pains
Poor grades
Reliance on alcohol or drugs to self-medicate
Retreating kinds of behaviors
Risk-taking behavior
Self-harming behaviors
Sensitive to criticism
Spending a lot of time alone
Thoughts of death or suicide
Withdrawal from friends and family

Areas of Concern

The next thing parents need to do is look at several aspects in their child’s life. The following three areas are what clinicians look at when diagnosing. They involve the Intensity of feelings and behaviors; the Duration of these experiences and finally the Domains in which they take place.
  1. Intensity: This involves the kind of thoughts and feelings a teenager is experiencing. Do they come and go – meaning they’re here one day and gone the next?  Are they mild, but chronic in their presentation? Are they moderate, interfering with school, home and social experiences? Are they so disruptive that you teen can’t get out of bed, is self-harming or suicidal thinking is being expressed? Measuring the intensity will help determine if the issues are a passing mood or symptoms of a mood disorder.
  2. Duration. This looks at the timeline of experiences. Does the moodiness present suddenly and is gone moments later? Is it followed by many good days in a row? Or is it more chronic, presenting for longer periods of time without any breaks? If the duration of symptoms is two weeks or longer, there is likely a depressive disorder operating. 
  3. Domains. Teen angst tends to get the best of us parents and teachers, but adolescents can reel it in with their friends or with others. Psychological disorders, however, are often pervasive, meaning they tend to present in nearly all situations and circumstances and are not controlled by will. So, a depressed teenager will likely have difficulties functioning in school, at home, with peers, in social events as well as with their own sense of self.  
What to Do Next 

If you think your child is struggling with more than the angst of the teen years, take your concerns immediately to your pediatrician or a mental health professional. Early diagnosis and treatment of depression lead to higher rates of recovery.  

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